Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for the ‘History’ Category

Germ of an Idea or What goes Around Comes Around

As I wrote earlier, my husband and I chose to go on a special trip to the Canary Islands, the destination prompted by my memories of a trip taken with my grandmother many years ago.

Laspalmaswriting56

vivgranship

My grandmother and I

As I wrote “The inspiration for this trip all started many years ago—to when I was an 8-year-old girl to be exact. At that time my grandmother took me from Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), to Cape Town by train and then by steamer ship to England, a trip that took 2 weeks. On the way there, and back, the steamer stopped in Las Palmas on the Canary Islands. I was fascinated by the new culture and the new language, Spanish. Recently I was writing up my grandmother’s memoirs, which reminded me of that time again. So, when my husband suggested we go somewhere special for a “big” birthday, the Canary Islands were top of my list.”

ship

One of the Union Castle Line ships in Cape Town harbor in the 1950s

Vgypsy

I was a gypsy in the costume parade

The steamer ships were part of the Royal Mail service, run by the Union Castle Line, delivering mail between England and southern Africa. As far as I remember, my grandmother and I went to England on the Stirling Castle and returned to Cape Town on the Pretoria Castle. We lived on each ship for 2 weeks and I can vaguely remember some special events, like kids’ activities and a film evening. The biggest event was the “Crossing the Line Ceremony”, when the steamer crossed the equator. It was like a festival, with a costume competition, a party, plenty of shaving cream sprayed around, and lots of champagne for the adults.

Here a few pictures from that trip, very evocative pictures that got us dreaming.

 

Advertisements

Read Full Post »

viewto

On the first zig-zag on the road going to the right uphill, the statue is where the white umbrellas are at the roadside cafe

statueOn the edge of Garachico, on a bend in the road going up the hill out of town, we passed a small car park, with a viewpoint, roadside café and an intriguing statue. It’s called “Monument to Canarian Emigrants” and we wondered about its significance. It was erected in August 1990, and the sculptor is Fernando Garciarramos.

Well, it turns out this is a big part of the history of the islands.

One of the important stories about the Canary Islands is the history of migration out of the islands. Because the islands are a crossroads in the Atlantic, they soon developed a very important relation with the newly conquered territories across the Atlantic. Canarians, both of indigenous and European descent, were present on some of plaqueColumbus’ journeys.

The flow of people from the Canaries to the Americas was constant from the late 15th century to the middle of the 20th century. This was due mainly to the small size and poverty of the islands, and the lure of a better life. For example, in the early 1800s more than 18,000 Canary Islanders emigrated to the Americas. Most to Cuba, and fewer to Venezuela and Puerto Rico. There are also Canarian communities in Louisiana, Florida and Texas in the USA.

statue2Many Canarians in the Americans played important roles in the bid for independence from Spain in many of those countries. For example, leaders such as Francisco de Miranda (Venezuelan military leader) and Simón Bolívar were of Canarian ancestry, and the iconic leader of Cuban independence, José Martí, had a Canarian mother.

The last large migration of Canarians towards the Americas took place in the 1950s mainly to Venezuela. Since then, Canarians have started, for the first time, to migrate to Europe. Most settled in Spain, but a few small Canarian communities are in the UK, Germany and Sweden.

A small minority of Canarian emigrants and descendants have also returned to the Islands from the 1960s onwards. As living conditions worsened in Latin America and at the same time improved on the Islands with the boom of tourism, many American-born Canarian descendants applied for Spanish passports so they could return settle back in the land of their ancestors.

A really interesting part of the history of the islands, which is way more complex than we ever realized before coming here.

 

 

Read Full Post »

firgasmaps

The town of Firgas on Gran Canaria has a sloping street with tiled maps and illustrations of all the Canary Islands, plus a relief model

firgasstream

Firgas also has this lovely street lined with tiled benches and plaques, one for each of the island’s main towns.

BVcafe

Many towns have outdoor cafes on or near the main square—note palm trees and balconies

Canary Islands: Part 2: Summary of islands

(I’ve put a lot of photos in this post, so please enjoy and scroll through).

We spent 10 days on the islands—a week on Tenerife and 3 days on Gran Canaria—so we were able to explore a fair bit. On both islands we stayed on, and visited, the north part of the island, rather than the south, as the south is a bit warmer, has more beaches and many big tourist resorts. We’ve always shunned resorts as we feel that’s not a good way to find out about local life and culture.

In some ways the two islands are very similar, but different in other ways so we’re happy we visited at least two of the 7 islands. If we ever revisit we’ll try to visit another one too, as well as return to Tenerife.

churchcourtyard

Courtyard in garden of main cathedral of Las Palmas

mtvillageview

Mountain village view—the sea is never far away

garasquare2

Main plaza in Garachico

(Here are some general observations. Later I’ll try to describe specific places and events.) It was interesting to be on an island with an island culture and the sea a constant presence. We enjoyed hearing Spanish (although we speak very little), and it was wonderful to see the architecture with a strong Spanish influence: towns and villages with a main plaza—the hub of local life—surrounded by a big church, usually with a belfry, and many government/official buildings. The plaza is usually pedestrianized, so kids can run around, throw balls or ride bikes, and adults/families sit around a central kiosk selling drinks and snacks, or at café tables spilling out onto the square or side streets.

garasquare

Main plaza in Garachico (other side)—our hotel is the burnt orange building on the right

BVsquare

Main plaza in Buena Vista on Tenerife’s north coast

balconies

Beautiful balconies

Most buildings are painted in bright colors—such as blue, yellow, orange, ochre, green—and many have beautiful wooden or wrought-iron balconies. Palm trees, pointsettias (in pots and as live shrubs), strelitzias and bougainvilleas bring a bright tropical touch, and outside the coastal towns and villages huge banana plantations are never far away.

bananas

 

 

 

 

 

 

bananas2

Tenerife has many banana plantations

volcanicland

Volcanic landscape on Tenerife

MtTeide

Mt Teide

All the islands are volcanic in origin but Tenerife is the one where this is probably the most obvious. Mt Teide dominates the island, and the north coast is marked by coves, inlets and rocky outcrops of craggy black rocks, against which the waves pound ceaselessly.

 

 

 

 

MtTeideR

Mt Teide National Park

garachico

Garachico—note black volcanic rocks

garastreet

Garachico

We spent most time in Garachico on Tenerife and used it as our base, and would do so again. It’s on the north coast, almost at the west end of the main coastal road TF42. This pretty town sprawls along the black rocky waterfront and up the mountain close behind. Established in the 16th century by Genoese merchants, Garachico was once the most important port on the island. That ended in 1706 when the Volcan Negro erupted and lava buried the harbor and much of the town. The façade of the former Santa Ana church escaped, as did the Castillo de San Miguel on the waterfront. It now houses the Heritage Information Center.

shield

Dogs are prominent on the Canaries’ crest

Once we got our orientation here we loved it and even returned for a day when we were staying at El Sauzal, another town further east on the coast. Garachico is a lovely town of narrow cobblestone streets, attractive colored buildings, many with striking balconies, a large plaza for pedestrians only, little souvenir shops and many restaurants and bars. It’s bustling in the day, but casual and friendly, and much quieter at night. Our hotel, the Quinta Roja, was in a huge former mansion fronting onto the main square so we were right in the center of local life—a bike rally on a Saturday morning, church services and bells on Sunday, family voltas (slow promenade while chatting) every evening.

 

mtvillageview2

oratavo

Steep street in Oratavo, Tenerife 

As a tourist on the islands it would be almost impossible to visit without renting a car, as public buses, although plentiful, will only take you to certain places. So, we did. In Garachico, and all the other towns, parking is a big problem, so it’s best to find a public parking place and then just walk. In Garachico you can park all along the seafront or in a parking area right next to the sea (all free, but all very busy at weekends when many day-trippers come visiting). Driving on the islands is not too difficult, if you know where you’re going and have a good map (the one from the Tourist Office at Tenerife airport was excellent). However, the roads are some of the steepest we’ve ever driven, with some incredible switchbacks and hairpin bends. But, considering the mountainous terrain the road system is pretty good. It’s actually remarkable that many local buses go up these steep winding roads.

fishdish

mojospuds

Special Canadian sauces and wrinkly potatoes, served here with fish

LPcathedral

Las Palmas main cathedral

On both islands you have to pay extra for bread at a meal, but it’s very good bread. Seafood everywhere is wonderful—fresh and plentiful. It’s not recommended that people drink tap water, so everyone buys bottled water. In shops and supermarkets you can buy very large bottles (up to 8 liters, which is a bit over 2 gallons) very cheaply.

We flew from Tenerife to Gran Canaria and stayed in the main city of Las Palmas, which is way bigger and more built-up than we were expecting. The port is also huge—it’s always been an ocean crossroads and still is. For example we saw oil tankers from Venezuela. It’s a very cosmopolitan city—we saw many Muslims in special robes and African people. Sadly, we also saw quite a few homeless people.

casacolon

Casa Colon (Columbus’s House) in Old Las Palmas

market

In the market

The best part of the city is Old Las Palmas, called Vegueta, which we went to by bus (1.40 euro each). It has a bustling covered produce market (the Mercado), old churches, mansions and squares, all in bright colors. We had fun visiting the main cathedral of the island and the Diocesan Museum of Sacred Art housed in part of the cathedral buildings. Vegueta also has the Casa Colon and the Museum, mentioned in Part 1. Here we learned a lot about the history of the islands, archeological, pre-colonial and colonial. What’s really brought home is how they have been an important sea crossroads all along.

terorstreet

Pedestrianized street in Teror

We were able to get out of the city one day, and drove up to three gorgeous mountain villages (Arucas, Teror, and Firgas), all with their own special church and squares.

If you are ever able to, I’d definitely recommend the Canary Islands for a wonderful trip.

typicalsquare

Square in Old Las Palmas

Read Full Post »

mapatlantic

Maps in the Casa Colon museum in Las Palmas

mapNatlantic

rock

Volcanic rocks along the north coast of Tenerife Island

The inspiration for this trip all started many years ago—to when I was an 8-year-old girl to be exact. At that time my grandmother took me from Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), to Cape Town by train and then by steamer ship to England, a trip that took 2 weeks. On the way there, and back, the steamer stopped in Las Palmas on the Canary Islands. I was fascinated by the new culture and the new language, Spanish. Recently I was writing up my grandmother’s memoirs, which reminded me of that time again. So, when my husband suggested we go somewhere special for a “big” birthday, the Canary Islands were top of my list.

And it was a great choice—new destination for us, a new culture, fascinating landscapes and mountain villages, and great food, especially seafood. We spent a week on Tenerife and 3 days on Las Palmas. I’ll cover those and various attractions and excursions in upcoming articles. But first, a brief introduction.

octcuttle

A wonderful meal of cuttlefish, octopus and “wrinkly” potatoes

truck

Canarycoatofarms

Canary coat-of-arms

Part 1: Bit of History.

First, how did the islands get their name? Contrary to what people might think, they are not named after the little yellow bird, the canary. They got their name from a Latin term, Insula Canaria, which means Island of the Dogs. The early Romans who first visited these islands gave them this name. Some historians believe it was because the original residents worshipped dogs (and kept a lot of dogs), but others think that the dogs referred to were actually Monk Seals, which in Latin were translated as “sea dogs”. The canary bird is native to the Canary Islands, the Azores and Madeira, and got its name from the islands.

canariarelief

Gran Canaria. The islands are all very mountainous

teneriferelief

Tenerife Island, with volcano Mt Teide in the center

RTeide

Rod M, with Mt Teide in the distance

This group of islands, just 62 miles off the southern coast of Morocco in Africa, has a long history and a fascinating mix of cultures. Because of their strategic location in the north Atlantic they’ve always been a crossroads. There are 7 main islands and all are volcanic in origin, emerging from the sea millions of years ago (the oldest between 16-20 million years and the newest 8-13 million years). Plato located the huge island of Atlantis here, which supposedly was destroyed by an earthquake and sank. This is probably just myth, but all the volcanic rocks and the volcano Mount Teide, on the island of Tenerife, attest to actual volcanic activity. Mount Teide is the third highest island volcano in the world, and Spain’s highest mountain.

Teide

Mt Teide National Park

Teidevolcanic

Much of Mt Teide National Park looks like a lunar landscape

patterns

Guanches pintaderas

Plutarch wrote about the islands in 82BC and the Romans called the islands Las Islas Afortunadas (the Fortunate Islands), presumably because of the good climate allowing for bountiful production of crops etc. Waves of peoples came from North Africa to settle and a thriving Guanche culture evolved. The name comes from “guan” meaning “man” and “che” meaning “white mountain”, referring to the snow-capped Mount Teide on Tenerife. According to Spanish historical records, the Guanches were tall, strongly-built and blue-eyed. Their society was based on a tribal structure, with a king or chieftain at the head. They worshipped Arbor, a powerful god who could bring rain and stop the flow of lava.

mummy

One of the mummies in the Museo Canario

patternspic

Some of the pintadera patterns

Much of this very early history can be seen in the Museo Canario in Las Palmas (on Gran Canaria island). The collection includes religious statuettes, pottery, tools and weapon (from roughly-cut wood, stone and bone) and jewelry of the Guanches, as well as skulls, skeletons and mummies (which show a direct connection with Egypt). Noticeable are copies of paintings found in Galdar, a town on Gran Canaria where archeologists found the last vestiges of the Guanches, including stone houses and megalithic burials. There is also a good collection of pintaderas, which are terracotta stamps used for printing geometric patterns on cloths.

Vfolkcostumes

Viv M outside a restaurant in Icod, Tenerife, with more modern folk costumes

Europeans learned of the islands when the Genoese explorer Lancerotto discovered them, giving his name to the island known today as Lanzarote. Spanish conquest of the islands began in the early 1400s and was complete in 1496 when Tenerife was conquered. Sea trade from the Far East, Africa and Europe all passed through here, so the islands had great strategic importance. An early example of the vital role the Canary Islands play in Atlantic shipping routes was when Christopher Columbus stayed on Gran Canaria in 1492 en route to his famous voyages that ended in discovering the New World. He used Las Palmas as a base when setting out for the west—what he thought were the Indies but were in fact the Americas.

 

colon

Front of Casa Colon

A lovely museum in Las Palmas is Casa Colon (Columbus House). It’s in an attractive Canary-style mansion in the oldest district of Las Palmas, built around indoor courtyards with beautiful wooden balconies. It was the palace of the first governors of the island and Columbus stayed there in 1492 while one of his ships was being repaired. Since 1952 it has been a museum, with models and artifacts relating to his voyages.

coloncourtyard

Courtyard in Casa Colon

modelship

Model of Columbus’s La Nina ship

Garachico

Garachico is a lovely town on the north coast of Tenerife

market

Market in Las Palmas

Great prosperity came to the Canaries due to the booming overseas trade and sugar cane industry. But, the islands’ fortunes have fluctuated, affected by the dangers of pirates, eruptions by the volcanoes that damaged farmlands, and the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). General Franco seized control of the islands in 1936, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Since then, the economy depends mainly on agriculture (lots of bananas) and fishing; trade, boosted by their free-port status; and tourism. Since 1982 the Canaries have enjoyed a statute of autonomy under the Spanish constitution, with the cities of Santa Cruz on Tenerife, and Las Palmas on Gran Canaria sharing the status of capital.

bananas

Many huge banana plantations dot the islands

fishIt’s an amazing story and one that many people know very little about (including us until now). Because of the tourist industry they are fairly easy to get to from many cities in Europe and UK.

Gplaza

The main plaza in Garachico—the Spanish influence is very obvious

 

Read Full Post »

PMfront

Entrance to Pere Marquette Lodge

P2040006.JPG

The Lodge’s restaurant has lovely stained-glass window panels, including this one of an eagle

parkscene

Part of the park, with view down to the Illinois River

We began our eagle-watching weekend on Friday night at the Lodge in Pere Marquette State Park, an ideal place to use as a base. Open all year. Reservations: call 618-786-2331, or www.PMLodge.net .Their slogan is “Come and stay, the natural way”. Pere Marquette Lodge and Conference Center, a few miles north of Grafton on Highway 100—the Great River Road—is on the edge of the state park by the same name. The 8000-acre park is set in the rolling bluffs and woods overlooking the scenic Illinois River.

parkscene2

perempic

A picture of Pere Marquette in the Pere Marquette Visitor Center

Pere Marquette State Park was founded in 1932 under the name “Piasa Bluffs State Park’ (named for the legendary Piasa Bird, see later). The original purchase of 2,605 acres was made for $25,000, through a combination of local donations and state matching funds. By popular appeal, the name was changed to Pere Marquette State Park, reflecting Father Marquette’s connection with the early history of the area. Today the park encompasses 8,050 acres.

Father Jacques Marquette (the French Jesuit missionary-priest who came to North America to share his faith with the native people), with explorer-cartographer Louis Joliet, was the first European to enter what is now Illinois in 1673, where they met members of the Illini tribe. They were paddling down the Mississippi River on an expedition commissioned by the Governor of New France, trying to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. When the local people told them that this river emptied in the Gulf of Mexico, they turned back and went along the Illinois River, stopping at a point near what is now the state park. A large dolomite stone cross commemorates this landing close to the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers.

pereMriver

Painting of Marquette and Joliet’s trip along the river

Marquette’s journal gives the first written description of the land that is now Illinois. Excerpt found at the Pere Marquette Visitor Center: “We have seen nothing like this river [the Illinois]…for the fertility of the land, its prairies, woods, wild cattle, elk, deer, wildcats, bustards, swans, ducks, parrots, and even beaver: its many small lakes and rivers. That on which we sail is wide, deep and still.”

But, the history of the park is much older than this. Throughout the hills, ravines, woods, and prairies of the fertile area along the Illinois River, Native American people hunted game, gathered food, and later made houses. Archeologists describe 6 Native American cultures from this region and have found fragments of pottery, spear points and planting tools. About 150 burial mounds are distributed throughout the park, most still unexcavated.

piasa

piasa2A fascinating legend still survives from these early days. Early people painted 2 huge pictures on one of the bluffs of a creature called Piasa—part bird, with the face of a man, scales like a fish, horns like a deer and a long black tail. Marquette and Joliet saw these and were initially afraid. What was this creature and what was its significance? Supposedly it preyed on local Indian tribes, until it was killed by Illini Chieftain Owatoga, whose village was near Elsah. The original Bluff Picture was painted so Indians, passing on the river, could shoot poisoned arrows at the “Bird”, in memory of their deliverance. A modern painted Piasa Bird is maintained to this day on the bluffs about 20 miles south of the park close to Alton.

PMlodge

The Lodge is a huge, sprawling structure

PMsignThe Lodge was originally built by the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) from 1933-1939, supposedly over a Native American village site. It opened for business in 1940 and was dedicated in 1941. The cost of construction was $352,912.00. Timbers of Douglas fir and western cedar from Oregon were used, along with limestone from the Grafton Quarry.

Recent expansions and renovations blend in with the native stone and rustic timbers of the original. The massive lodge building has 50 guest rooms, an indoor pool, game room, a restaurant open for breakfast, lunch and dinner, the Mary Michelle Winery/bar, and gift shop.

PMHall

The Great Hall

chess

game

Kids love this game too

The focal point is a an enormous hall with vaulted ceiling called the Great Room Lobby, decorated with 4 very attractive hanging fabric collages/tapestries of a woods pattern—leaves, branches, creatures—and a mammoth stone fireplace (50 feet high and said to weigh 700 tons) with cheerful dancing flames (very welcome in the frigid cold). Couches, tables and chairs in original 1930s style are grouped around for visitors’ use and a large wooden floor chess board and chess set is well used, especially by kids. Many tables have other games on them too. Picture windows all along one side open to the Brussels Terrace, which gives a great view onto the Illinois River,

breakfast

Breakfast in the restaurant 

especially at sunrise and sunset. This is also a favored venue for weddings—and we watched one the Saturday evening we were there. The lodge also offers 22 stone guest cabin rooms, in 7 cabins, a short walk from the main building.

The Lodge overlooks the Illinois River and is just a short walk from the Pere Marquette Visitor Center, which has a lot of useful information about the park’s fauna and flora, the history of the area, and bald eagles.

A wonderful weekend.

Read Full Post »

Happy New Year everyone! May 2018 be a good year for all.

We’ll soon be off on our next adventures, so I wanted to finish my mini-series on Fort McHenry in Baltimore (bit delayed I know, sorry!)

Amristead copy

armisteadplaque copyPart 4: Plaques and statues at Fort McHenry

Dotted around the fort are a number of plaques and statues that also continue the story of the fort and the people involved with it.

The first that caught our eye was an imposing statue of George Armstead, the Commander at Fort Henry who was instrumental in warding off the British. He was also the one who commissioned the famous flag.

Another was a plaque to Francis Scott Key. In 1914, as part of the National Star-Spangled Banner Centennial Celebration, the city of Baltimore dedicated the Francis Scott Key Tablet. Designed by Hans Schuler, originally from Germany, the bronze shield depicts and American flag and myrtle (symbol of love and immortality) surrounding a portrait of Key.

orpheusplaque

Key1914plaque

Illinois copyAs mentioned before, when we walked back to catch the bus, we noted metal plaques set into the sidewalk along the edge of the entrance road, with the names of US states. We discovered that there is one for each state, commemorating when the state entered the union. We couldn’t find them all, but did find Illinois! Significant for us, as Illinois will celebrate its 200th year in the union in 2018.

orpheus

orpheuscloseWe also detoured to a grassy area to look at a huge statue we’d noticed when we came into the park. It is called Orpheus, the Hero of Music and Poetry. In 1916 the Fine Arts Commission sponsored a national competition for a statue to honor Francis Scott Key and the defenders who protected Baltimore during the War of 1812. It chose “Orpheus” by Charles Niehaus. America’s involvement in WW1 delayed the completion of the statue. It was dedicated on Flag Day June 14, 1922 and was originally placed in the middle of the entrance road, where it was the centerpiece for the annual commemoration of the Battle of Baltimore. It was moved to the current location in 1962. The statue and the surrounding grove of flowering crabapple trees is one way of showing how the fort changed from an active military base to a place of reflection and commemoration.

 

 

 

 

Read Full Post »

fortsign

viewfromroad

View of fort and park from entrance

 

canon2

The fort has many canons of varying ages

We’ve had so much other wonderful travel this year that I never did get round to finishing the story of Fort McHenry in Baltimore. It is an interesting story and we did enjoy our morning visiting the fort in the summer. So, to rectify that, here come parts 3, and 4.

Part 3: Brief History of the Fort:

In a way, the history is more impressive than the actual structures we see today, as they are more symbolic than grand now.

Although the United States won its independence from Britain in 1783, the threat of foreign invasion remained. To protect the young republic, the federal government launched an ambitious program of building forts near America’s primary cities along the East Coast. Fort McHenry was one of those forts.

canondefense

1878

ravelin

One of the informative boards in the fort

Completed in 1805 and named after the Secretary of War, James McHenry, the new fort had five points or “bastions”, which had a star shape, accommodations for over 150 soldiers, and a line of heavy artillery aimed downriver. The fort is strategically placed at the end of a point dividing different branches of the Patapsco River, a perfect spot for protecting the city of Baltimore.

The first flag to fly over the newly-constructed ramparts was a 15-star, 15-stripe banner, reflecting the recently added states of Vermont and Kentucky.

enter

Entrance to inner fort

fortinsideflag

Part of the inner fort, and a flag that always flies

The fort saw serious action when it was attacked by the British in September 1814, but repulsed the British onslaught (see earlier post https://viviennemackie.wordpress.com/2017/09/27/fort-mchenry-and-the-star-spangled-banner/ ).

Lt Fay sign

Board about Lt Allen Fay, at the time of the 1814 war. Interesting facts about amounts of rations (click photo to make it bigger)

 

LtFay

Statue of Lt Allen Fay

Rrodman

Rod M and a Rodman canon

The fort never again came under enemy fire, but it continued as an active military post for the next 100 years. In 1829 the earthen walls were reinforced with granite blocks and a brick wall was added to shore up the parapets. During the Civil War it was used as a temporary prison for captured Confederate soldiers, southern sympathizers, and political prisoners.

In 1866 the enormous Rodman Canons were installed, the heaviest ever at the fort. However, they were only ever used for ceremonies.

During WW1, the US Army built over 100 buildings around the star fort. It was one of the rodmanlargest military hospitals in the country and housed 3,000 wounded soldiers from the battlefields of France. Over 1,000 staff worked in this facility. From 1917 until 1923, US Army General Hospital No. 2 was located here to serve WW1 veterans. It was especially known as a surgical center and great advances in neurosurgery and reconstructive surgery took place here. It was also one of the first medical centers to reintegrate disabled soldiers into civilian life by offering special classes in typing, knitting, metal work, automotive repair and other trades.

In 1925 Congress made Fort McHenry a national park; 14 years later it was re-designated a national monument and historic shrine, the only park in US to have this double distinction.

Next is Part 4 on plaques and statues in the fort park.

 

 

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »

Dining with Donald

Donald on dining in and out

Paris1972-Versailles2003

Travel and my anecdotes

Deuxiemepeau; Picturing Poetry by Damien B. Donnelly

Between the lines and through the lens...

Camellia's Cottage

Alabama Lifestyle Blog

Our Visits to Japan

Trying to capture the essence of this lovely country

Sunny District

Welcome to my happy place!

Transplanted Tatar

Travel of the hidden-treasure variety

Odedi's Wine Reviews Blog

Wine reviews so good, you can almost "taste it" !

Korean Experiences

Come travel and explore this lovely country ( South Korea) with Viv and Rod on our latest trips

Social Vignerons

The World of Wine's Got Talent

Some Good Eats

Eat and don't worry about it

No Milk Today

Allergy or Food Intolerance: Delicious Dairy-Free Recipes, DIY & more :)

valeriu dg barbu

©valeriu barbu

wendyquinn.me/

WRITING AND COPY-EDITING : MEMORABLE AND INVITING. CONCISE AND CLEAR. KEEP IT SIMPLE.

Slim Paley

The Stuff of Life

The Exhibition List

SHARE YOUR EXPERIENCES OF MUSEUMS, GALLERIES AND HISTORIC PLACES WITH THE WORLD

Gardening in the Lines

a diary of gardens.

Travelrat's Travels

Been there; done it ... and if I haven't, I'm going sometime!